CROPPING PATTERN IN INDIA
Cropping pattern means the proportional area w1der different crops at a particular point of time. The cropping, pattern of any region 'is the outcome of a long process of historical evolution. The outstanding features of cropping pattern in India are as follows:
(i) Net sown area increased from 1,187.5 lakh hectare in 1950-51 to 1,412.3 lakh hectare in 1999-2000. Broad cropping pattern indicates that though foodgrains have a preponderance in gross cropped area as compared to nonfoodgrains, their relative share came down from 76.7 per cent during 1950-51 to 65.8 per cent during 1999-2000.
(ii) There are a wide variety of crops raised.
(iii) In eastern India and coastal lowlands, especially the western coast south of Goa, rice is the predominant crop. Tea and jute are distinctive crops of east India. Jowar, bajra, pulses, cotton and groundnut are the chief crops in the plateau, while wheat is mainly raised in the alluvial plains of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana.
(iv) Food producing agriculture is strikingly concentrated upon three grain crops, e.g., rice, millet and wheat, with some maize and barley. Pulses come next in area, and then oilseeds.
(v) Though a substantial area in India lies under tobacco, potatoes, fruits and vegetables, their share in the total cropped area is relatively small.